When I was a kid, I had a chemistry set. I wrote off to a bunch of scientific supply places for catalogs. This is part of my favorite. In addition to the standard catalog, the first part of the booklet was practical chemical recipes. I was fascinated. I've scaned and OCR'd them in below. DISCLAIMER: DON'T DO THESE!!! Some of them make me shiver, like the lead-based paints and glues. It is interesting, however to compare the modern smartphone sepia filter with the actual process. Make sure you click the "read more" at the bottom for the full contents.


For Laboratory Use

Haines Solution for glucose in urine

3 grams Copper Sulphate, 9 grams Potassium Hydrate, pure, 100 grams Glycerine, water to make 600 ml. Boil 4 ml. of solution, add 6-10 drops urine. Boil again. If sugar is present red precipitate of cuprous oxide forms

Millon's Reagent for albumen in urine

Dissolve mercury in an equal weight of strong Nitric Acid, applying moderate heat. Dilute with equal volume of distilled water. When added to urine which may contain albumen, a reddish precipitate is formed on warming.

Boas Solution for free Hydrochloric Acid

Dissolve 1 gram resorcin and 3 grams cane sugar in 100 ml 50% alcohol. Gives red color on adding a drop or two to solution containing Hydrochloric Acid.

Test Solutions

The general rule for test solutions is to take 10 grams of C P. chemical, dissolve in about 50 ml water and make up to 100 ml

Cement for mending wood handle pestles

Melt together equal parts india rubber and shellac. Fill cavity in handle and retain in position

Test for leaking ammonia gas

Tie a piece of phenolphthalein paper on a long stick and move in vicinity where ammonia leak is suspected. The paper will turn a brilliant red when hit by leaking ammonia fumes.

Test for hydrogen sulphide gas

Lead acetate test paper will turn black in presence of hydrogen sulphide. Likewise it will turn black when dipped into a solution containing soluble sulphides

Litharge and glycerine cement

Stir litharge (lead oxide, yellow) into glycerine until it becomes a paste. Apply where needed. Hardens in a few hours. An excellent all around cement for glass, metals, coupling, etc.

Glass and porcelain cement

Casein 1 part, sodium silicate solution 6 parts. Apply to broken parts

Aquarium cement

Graphite powder 6 parts, slaked lime (calcium hydrate) 3 parts, barium sulphate 8 parts, linseed varnish oil 7 parts. Work into a putty-like consistency and press into place.


Household Formulas

The average householder will find a world of information in the following pages. Likewise many of the formulas can be utilized for money-making purposes. From these formulas many other ideas can be gotten.

Soaps, Cleaners and Disinfectants

To soften hard water - dissolve 1/2 pound of soda ash (sodium carbonate, anhydrous) in a quart of water. A tablespoon of this solution will soften a half gallon of hard water

Laundry soap

Tallow 16 parts, cocoanut oil 3 parts, soda lye (sodium hydrate) 11 parts, sodium silicate solution 9 parts, potassium carbonate 2 parts. Melt the tallow and cocoanut oil together to a temperature of 140° F. Dissolve the sodium hydrate and potassium carbonate in a small amount of water, add the sodium silicate and stir into the melted fat. Pour into cake tins and cut into bars after the mixture has become sufficiently firm.

Rug cleaner

Trisodium phosphate 1 ounce, soft water 1 gallon. Sponge the rug with the above solution

Linoleum varnish

After washing linoleum and allowing to dry apply the following with a brush or soft cloth - oil of turpentine 1 parts, beeswax 3 parts, varnish 5 parts. Melt the beeswax over a low lame, remove from the fire and slowly stir in the turpentine; add the varnish and stir until the whole is blended.

Pine oil disinfectant

Pine oil 5 parts, rosin 2 parts, sodium hydrate, 25% solution 1 part. Heat the pine oil and rosin together until the rosin has dissolved. Cool to 140F and slowly stir in the sodium hydrate solution. In 30 minutes saponification should be complete. Use one part of this mixture to 40 parts of water for disinfecting toilets, outhouses, garbage containers, etc.

Polishes for Furniture, Glues and Adhesives

Furniture polish

Linseed oil raw 32 oz., Alcohol 8 oz., Acetic Acid, 28%, 8 oz., turpentine 8 oz., antimony chloride solution 2 oz. Mix all together. Shake well betore using.

Metal polish

Tripoli powder 1 pound, whiting 1 pound, precipitated chalk 1 pound, stearie acid powder 1 pound, benzine 1 gallon, oleic acid half pound. Shake well before using.

Stove polish

Ceresine wax 6 parts, japan wax 5 parts, turpentine 50 parts, lampblack 6 parts, graphite powder 5 parts. Melt the ceresine and wax together, remove from the fire and when half cooled add the turpentine, then stir in the lampblack and graphite.

To clean and polish silver

Take 2 parts precipitated chalk, 2 parts ammonium hydrate 20° and water 8 parts. Shake before using.

To keep glue from becoming brittle

Add 5% glycerine

Casein glue

this is a very strong adhesive for general use. Casein 10 parts, water 20 parts, sodium hydrate 1 part, water 5 parts. Mix the casein with the first portion of water.


Gum Arabic 1 part, starch 1 part, sugar 4 parts. Dissolve the gum arabic in hot water, add the starch and sugar. Add water to reach the proper consistency. A few drops of carbolic acid will prevent souring.

Wall paper paste

Rye flour 4 pounds, cold water 2 quarts, boiling water 1/2 gallons, powdered rosin 2 ounces. Mix the rye flour with the cold water to make a smooth paste, which is then stirred into the boiling water; then slowly add the rosin to this hot solution. Thin with hot water if necesary.

To make labels stick to tin

Add about 2% powdered citric or tartaric acid.

Paints, Varnishes, etc.

To make Flat paint

Mix a flatting oil with the white lead paste instead of the usual boiled linseed oil.

To make Gloss paint

To make gloss paint, mix together equal parts of soft white lead paste and boiled linseed oil! add 1 gill of turpentine and 1 gill of drier to each gallon of paint. Use a large pail to mix the batch. Oil colors can be added to tint desired. After mixing strain through a wire or cloth screen.

Paint for porch floors

Since the under side of porches are frequently damp, the following should be used to prevent peeling or blistering - White lead paste 6 1/4 pounds, raw linseed oil 1 quart, turpentine 1 pint, drier 2 ounces. Enough to cover about 10 feet by 32 feet of surface.

Varnish stains

Dissolve 1 ounce of oil soluble oil aniline color in 2 quarts of varnish. Or dissolve in about 6 ounces of benzole then stir into varnish as needed until the right depth of color is гeached.

Lacquer stains

dissolve 1/4 ounce of oil soluble aniline color in 4 ounces of 100% alcohol, filter through filter paper. Add color until the right depth is reached

Paint and varnish remover

Ethyl acetate 2 parts, amyl acetate 2 parts, strong ammonia water (ammonium hydrate, concentrated) acetone 1 part, alcohol 1 part. Keep container tightly closed when not in use. When using allow to remain at least five minutes before scraping off.

Wood bleach

Oxalic acid 16 ounces, hot water 1 gallon. Apply the solution while still hot with a wall brush then allow the floor dry.

Paint remover

Benzole 15 parts, fusel oil (amyl alcohol, iso) beeswax 1 part. Shave the beeswax into the benzole carefully heating if necessary to facilitate solution. Add the fusel oil.

Cleaning paint brushes

As soon as painting is finished, immediately wash with benzine or benzole. Then wash in the following solution - Sodium Phosphate, tribasic (Trisodium Phosphate 1 pound, hot water 2 quarts. After washing rinse in clear water and hang up to dry.


Remedies, Cosmetica, ete.

Carbolated Petrolatum

Yellow petrolatum 8 ounces, carbolic acid crystals 4 grams. Melt the petrolatum and carbolic acid crystals (phenol) separately and pour the acid into the melted petrolatum. Stir.

Mentholated Petrolatum

White petrolatum 8 ounces, menthol crystals 5 grams. Melt the petrolatum, pour in the menthol crystals and stir until dissolved. Excellent for colds in the nose, head and chest

Vapor Petrolatum

White petrolatum 8 ounces, oil of eucalyptus 10 ml., oil of camphor 10 ml., menthol crystals 2 grams. Melt the petrolatum, pour in the menthol crystals, stir until melted, then add the oils. Excellent for head colds and chest rub.

Mustardized Petrolatum

White petrolatum 8 ounces, artificial oil of mustard 2 ml. Melt the petrolatum and pour in the oil of mustard. Stir. Recommended for chest rub in colds. Be careful in handling the oil of mustard. It is very strong and can cause irritation in the pure form.

Throat spray

White mineral oil 4 ounces, menthol 5 grains, camphor 10 grains, eucalyptol 5 grains. Warm the mineral oil and dissolve the menthol and camphor in the oil. Add the eucalyptol, shake and use in a throat sprayer.

Zinc salve

Oxide of zinc, white, 1 part, fresh lard 6 parts. Warm the lard and stir in the zinc oxide until uniform. Good for minor skin eruptions, etc.

Wart remover

Chloral hydrate 1 part, acetic acid, glacial 1 part, acid salicylic 4 parts, ether sulphuric 4 parts, collodion 15 parts. When the chloral hydrate and salicylic is thoroughly dissolved shake and apply once a day as long as necessary

Mosquito chaser

To keep mosquitos away apply the following to exposed parts of the body Oil of cedarwood 1 Oz. oil of citronella 2 ounces, spirits of camphor 4 ounces.

Throat gargle

Dissolve 4 grams potassium chlorate in a pint of water.

Cold cream

White wax 1 part, oil of sweet almonds 10 parts, spermacetti 10 parts, rose water 6 parts, Melt the white wax and spermacetti, pour in the oil of almonds. Remove from the fire and stir in the rose water. Beat the cream until it thickens and add a little oil of rose

Vanishing cream

Stearic acid powder 3 ounces, triethanolamine 15 ml., glycerine 50 grams, water 1 pint, perfum oil 10 ml. Heat the stearic acid to 170° F., add the triethanolamine, glycerine and water which have also been heated to the above temperature. When the temperature drops to 135° pour in the perfume oil. Stir slowly until the cream is cold. Stir once a day for the first few days

Rol-off massаge cream

Casein 4 pars, water 14 parta, ammonia water 1 part, glycerine 2 parts, white petrolatum 6 parts. Mix the casein, water and glycerine and stir in the ammonia water. Warm the mixture over a low fire. After the cream has cooled, beat the white pertolatum into it thoroughly. Add few drops of benzaldehyde. (artificial oil of almonds) This is the massage cream which rolls off in rolls when applied to the skin.

Talcum powder

Talc powder 5 ounces, precipitated chalk 3 ounces, boric acid powder 1 ounce, magnesium stearate 1 ounce, perfume as desired.

For prickly heat

A simple but unsurpassed remedy for prickly heat is common corn starch

Lavender smelling salts

An old favorite. A remedy for faintness when inhaled. Ammonia water 2 ounces, tincture of orris 5 drops, oil of lavender 10 drops, extract of violet 30 drops.

Flexible collodion

To ordinary collodion add 5 per cent castor oil. This will make a flexible collodion which will not peel off or crack when used on knuckles, etc.

Camphor ice

A recognized remedy for chappedd hands and dry skin. White wax 4 oz., benzoated suet 12 ounces, camphor powder 2 ounces. Melt the wax, add the suet, then camphor. Mix well and pour into small square tin and cut into cakes.

Brushleas shaving cream

Stearic acid powder 2 1/2 ounces, mineral oil 3 ounces, water 14 ounces, triethanolamine 1 ounce, borax 1/2 ounce, carbitol 2 ounce. Three containers are required for making this cream. Heat the mineral oil over a low flame. In an other container melt the stearic acid, and add it to the oil. In the third container heat the water together with the borax and triethanolamine and stir the solution into the oil mixture. Continue to stir until a uniform smooth emulsion has been produced. Add the carbitol mixed with perfume if desired. Menthol can be added if a cooling cream is wanted.

Lip salve for chapped lips

White petrolatum 12 ounces, beeswax, white 5 ounces, spermacetti 1/2 ounce. Melt the beeswax and spermacetti add the petrolatum. When all is melted, stir and pour into a tin.

Liquid shampoo

Powdered white castile soaр 2 оunces, ammonia water 2 ounces, bay rum 1 ounce, glycerine 1 ounce, water 12 ounces. Use a fairly large kettle, heat the water, add castile soap slowly. When cool add the other ingredients and stir thorоughly.

Hair pomade

Used to keep hair in place when combing. Helps dry scalp. Do not use on oily hair. White petrolatum 4 ounces, castor oil 3 ounces, fresh lard 2 1/2 ounces, spermacetti 1 ounce, oil of bergamot 10 ml. Melt the spermacetti over a low flame, add the lard and white petrolatum, then the castor oil. When almost cold add the bergamot oil.

Powdered nail polish

Tin oxide white 4 ounces, talc 2 ounces, zinc oxide 2 ounces. To color add a small portion of carmine or eosine.

Nail lacquer or liquid nail polish

Celluloid 1/4 ounce, amyl acetate 2 1/2 ounces, acetone 7 1/2 ounces, phloxine ,coloring) according to shade desired. Mix the acetone and amyl acetate and dissolve the celluloid in the mixture. Do not place near a flame. After thoroughly cleaning nails and drying apply the first coat. Do not apply the second coat until the first is thoroughly dry.

Glycerine hand lotion

Boric acid 2 ounces, glycerine 6 ounces, lanoline 6 ounces, petrolatum 5 ounces. Dissolve the boric acid in the glycerine use low heat. Melt the lanolin and petrolatum and stir in the boric acid solution. Stir until cool and thoroughly mixed.

Foot Powder

Acid Salicylic 1/2 ounce, Acid boric powder 3 ounces, corn starch 4 ounces, talc powder 4 ounces. Dust over feet and in shoes. Antiseptic and deodorant


Soap liniment 1% ounces, tincture capsicum 2 ounce, aqua ammonia 1/4 ounce, ethyl alcohol denatured 1/2 ounce, oil of cloves % ounce, oil sassafras 2 ounces, spirits of camphor 4 ounces, rubbing alcohol to make 2 pints.

Tooth Powder

Precipitated chalk 1 pound, castile soap powder 1 ounce, orris root powder 2 ounces, sugar powder 1 ounce, oil of wintergreen 1/4 ounce. Sift through a fine sieve.

For toothache

a mixture of equal parts of cloves and beech wood creosote applied to the cavity.

Carron oil for burns

Equal parts raw linseed oil and limewater. Cover with a light bandage.

Corn remedy

Resorcin 1 part, acid salicylic 1 part, flexible collodion 10 parts. Apply to the corn for 5 days, then soak foot in hot water.


The chief reaction involved in pyrotechny is oxidation. As there is some danger involved certain precautions should be observed. Children under 16 years of age should not be allowed to mix fireworks. It should be done entirely under parental supervision. Potassium chlorate must be handled carefully as it can react violently if rubbed or pounded with other chemicals. Even when powdered alone it must be done very carefully. Mix all chemicals for fireworks by sifting through a piece of window screen. Colored fires or flashlight powder should be ignited by tying a piece of fuse trring on a stick and lighting the fuse.

fuse string

To make a fuse - soak soft thick string in a solution of potassium nitrate and allow to dry.

Flashlight powder

mix carefully 4 grams potassium nitrate powder with 1 gram magnesium metal powder. Before lighting sprinkle a little sulphur over the pile. Use a metal pan under this and other fireworks demonstrations. pounded with other chemicals.

Red fire

Mix carefully 1 gram potassium chlorate, 11 grams strontium nitrate, 4 grams sulphur and 5 grams charcoal powder.

Green Fire

a mixture of 3 grams finely powdered potassium chlorate, 8 grams barium nitrate and 3 grams sulphur.

Blue fire

Mix together 3 grams antimony sulphide, 9 grams sulphur and 12 grams potassium nitrate

White fire

Potassium nitrate 15 grams, sulphur 5 grams, antimony sulphide 2 1/2 grams, flour 1 1/2 grams, camphor powder 1 gram.

Purple fire

Potassium chlorate 16 grams, copper sulphide 8 grams, sulphur 2 grams, Calomel (mercurous chloride) 7 grams.

Yellow fire

Sulphur 4 grams, sodium carbonate, anhydrous 6 grams, potassium chlorate 10 grams.

Sputtering matches

Dip the heads of common matches (not the so-called safety matches) in sodium silicate solution. When dry dip into melted paraffine. When cold strike the matches. They will pop and sputter.


The following plating processes can be done without electricty. After plating they can be polished to a high luster. Objects should be cleaned to remove grease with a solution of borax in hot water. Rust can be removed from iron with solution of 1 tablespoon of ammonium citrate in a quart of hot water. Ingredients must be in powder form and thoroughly mixed together. A wet cloth should be used to rub the mixture on to the metal to be plated.

Nickel Plating

Nickel Ammonium Sulphate 20 grams, Magnesium Metal Powder 1 gram, chalk 10 grams.

Silver Plating

Silver Nitrate 1 ounce, Sodium Chloride, CP. 1 ounce, Potassium Bitartrate pure 14 ounces.

Tin Plating

Stannous chloride 5 grams, ammonium sulphate pure 5 grams, Magnesium metal powder 1 gram, Chalk powder 1 ounce.

Silver plating on copper and brass

Silver nitrate 2 ounces, dissolve in water 3 quarts. Sodium cyanide 7 ounces dissolved in 3 quarts of water. Mix the 2 solutions and heat to 200° F. Immerse the metal to be plated until it is evenly coated with silver, remove and rinse in clear water. Polish the silvered surface with a paste made with jewelers rouge and water.

Brass plating solution

To be used on iron and steel, take Copper Sulphate 1 ounce, tin chloride, stannous 1 ounce, water 2 quarts. Dissolve the chemicals in the water.

Gold plating on brass and copper

Gold chloride 1 gram, sodium cyanide 17 grams, water 266 ml. Solution No. 2 Take 5 grams sodium sulphate, 3 grams sodium hydrate, water 266 ml. Make up the 2 solutions in separate containers, mix together and bring to a boil. While still hot immerse the metal to be plated and treat like the silver above. Note Sodium Cyanide is essential in plating, but is very poisonous. Extreme care should be used with this chemical Handle only with rubber gloves which have no holes or leaks.


Metallurgy is the science of separating metals from their ores, from other metals, also to combine various metals to form alloys and in the case of mercury, amalgams. Metallurgy is the basis of vast industrial processes.

French gold

Copper 80.5 parts, Zinc 14.5 parts. Bears a very fine resemblance to gold and is quite malleable.

Silver-gold or "White gold."

Silver 30 grams, gold 30 grams.

Stainless steel

Steel 43 parts, chromium metal 6% parts.

Magnetic alloy

Copper 61.5 parts, Manganese 23.3 parts, lead 0.1 part aluminum 15 parts, iron 0.1 part

Dutch gold

Imitation gold. 20 parts copper, 5 parts zinc

Type metal

Lead 10 parts, antimony 2 parts, bismuth 1 part.

German silver

Copper 10 parts, zinc 4 parts, nickel 3 parts.

Bell metal

20 parts copper, 5 parts tin.

Rose's metal

Low melting point. Bismuth 2 parts, lead 1 part, tin 1 part. M. P. 200° F.

Wood's metal

Melting point 155° F. Bismuth 8 parts, lead 4 parts, tin 2 parts.

Soft solder

Melts at 320° F. Tin 2 parts, lead 2 parts, bismuth 1 part

Hard solder

Melts at 390° F. Tin 10 parts, lead 10 parts.

Artificial "patina" or verdigris on brass

Copper 30 grams, Nitric acid conc. 60 grams, acetic acid 28% 133 ml., ammonium chloride 11 grams, ammonia water 20 ml., water 465 ml. Dissolve the copper in nitric acid, add the other ingredients. Dip objects to be coated in the solution and hang up to dry. When a satisfactory coating has been attained, cover with thin coating of linseed oil


Racing fuel

Add 5% Nitomethane to high octane gas for auto or midget racing. Or add the same amount to 100% Methanol (methyl Alcohol) for motor boat racing.

Non-inflammable cleaning fluid

To make an excellent cleaning fluid which will not take fire or explode add 1 part benzine to 9 parts carbon tetrachloride

Rust Preventive

Dissolve 1 part mineral oil in 200 parts benzine, and coat object to be rust-proofed. As the benzine evaporates a thin film of liquid petroleum will coat the object.

Grafting wax

For grafting or budding make a mixture of 1 pound of beeswax, 1 pound of rosin and 1 pound gum turpentine.

To color cut flowers or plants

Immerse the stems or roots of flowers and plants in solution of aniline dye. Brilliant effects can be obtained by using blue, red, green, purple or orange dyes.

To make chemical plants

Dilute clear sodium silicate with an equal amount of distilled water. Place in a flat bottle like a half pint whiskey bottle. Drop in colored crystals like copper nitrate, potassium chromate, nickel nitrate and chloride, cobalt nitrate or chloride, in fact any bright colored water soluble chemical. The crystal will begin to "grow" almost immediately and are very interesting to watch.

Magic paper

Coat a piece of writing paper with a solution of tannic acid, using a piece of cotton as awith swab, and allow to dry. By writing on this paper with a solution of ferric chloride the writing will turn black.

Invisible ink

With a clean pen or brush make a design or writing on a sheet of writing paper with lemon juice or 2% sulphuric oil. Allow to dry. When heated over a gas burner or alcohol lamp the design will come out plainly.

Demonstration of acid in vinegar or lemon

Apply a strip of blue litmus paper to vinegar or lemon and it will immediately turn red. A vial of litmus paper containing a hundred strips cost only 10c

Demonstration of alkali in soap, ammonia or washing powder

Apply a strip of red litmus paper to any of the above and it will turn blue.

Demonstrating formation and presence of Hydrogen chloride

Mix a small portion of sodium bisulphate and about twice as much ammonium chloride. Place in a test tube using not more than 1/4 inch of the material in a test tube. Heat very gently over alcohol lamp, bunsen burner or gas stove. Moisten a piece of blue litmus paper and hold over the mouth of the tube. It will turn red, demonstrating the release of Hydrogen chloride gas.

Chemical smoke

Heat a little ammonium chloride in an old spoon over a flame and a dense white smoke will be given off.

Magic smoke

Put a little strong ammonium hydrate, in a four ounce wide mouth bottle and cover with a glass plate. In another bottle a little distance away put some strong hydrochloric acid. On bringing the mouths of these two bottles together, a dense cloud of ammonium chloride fumes will gather.

Chemical icicles

In one beaker place about an ounce of 50% sodium silicate solution. In another about the same amount of concentrated sulphuric acid. Pour the acid into the silicate and then invert the beaker over a dish holding the beaker so that the mixture will drip several inches. The mixture will run out and build up an "icicle" as it drips.

Iron sparks

Take a pinch of iron powder between the thumb and forefinger and sprinkle it into a bunsen burner or alcohol lamp flame. The iron will shoot out brilliant showers of sparks.

Magnesium Flare

Take a piece of magnesium ribbon about 8 inches long, hold it with a pair of tongs or forceps over a tin plate. Light one end and turn out the lights. The light is so dazzling one should not look directly at it. Clouds of magnesium oxide will be given off. It is possible to use this method for taking pictures indoors.


Tested Formulas

Metol-hydroquinone film developer

Warm distilled water 3 quarts, metol 6 grams, sodium sulphite, photo grade 6 ounces, sodium bisulphite 4 grams, hydroquinone I gram, sodium carbonate photo dry 23 grams, potassium bromide 3 grams. When dissolved add water to make one gallon ready to use.

Pyro film developer

Requires 3 stock solutions. Solution No. 1 Sodium Bisulphite 9 grams, pyrogallic acid 2 ounces, potassium bromide 1 gram, water to make 32 ounces. Solution No. 2 Sodium sulphite, photo 3 1/2 ounces, water to make 32 ounces. Solution No. 3 soduim carbonate, monohydrate 2% ounces, water to make 32 ounces. For tank developing mix 1 part each of No. 1, 2, 3 in 11 parts of water. Time required 9-12 minutes. For tray developing use 1 part each of No. 1, 2, 3 with 7 parts water; time required for tray developing 6-8 minutes.

Reducer for over-exposed films

Requires 2 solutions. Solution No. 1 Potassium ferricyanide 1/4 ounce water to make 4 ounces. Solution No. 2 Sodium Hyposulphite 3 ounces, water 15 ounces. To use the reducer take 2 ounce of solution No. 1 and 2 ounces of solution No. 2. Mix in 16 ounces of water. Place negative in white dish or bowl, pour the mixed solution over it, removing as soon as desired degree of contrast has been obtained. Rinse in clear water and dry.

Intensifier for underexposed films

Requires 2 solutions. Solution No. 1 Mercuric Chloride 7 grams, Potassium Bromide 7 grams, water 11 ounces. Solution No. 2 Sodium sulphite, photo 1 ounce, water 10 ounces. Place the negative in solution No. 1 and slowly agitate. Next wash the film in running water for a few minutes. Place in solution No. 2 until the desired intensity has been obtained. Then rinse in running water for 30 minutes.

Metol developer for prints

Dissolve the following in 5 ounces of water. Metol 12 1/2 grains, sodium sulphite 55 grains, sodium carbonate 72 1/2 grains, potassium bromide 21 grains. When dis solved make up to 14 ounces with water.

Stop-bath rinse

a neutralizer to be used between developing and fixing bath for prints. 28% acetic acid 1% ounces, water to make 32 ounces.

Metol-hydroquinone developer for prints

Dissolve the following in 8 ounces of water - metol 20 grains, sodium sulphite photo 225 grains, hydroquinone 50 grains, sodium carbonate, anhydrous 300 grains, potassium bromide 7 grains. When dissolved add water to make 20 ounces. Time required for prints 12 minutes at 65° F.

Acid hardening fixing bath

Water 16 ounces, Hypo 8 ounces. This is solution No. 1. Solution No. 2 water 5 ounces, sodium sulphite anhydrous 15 grams, acetic acid 28% 42 ml., potassium alum 15 grams. stir solution No. 2 into solution No. 1 and add water to make 32 ounces. Agitate prints for 1 minute after placing them in fixing bath, keeping prints separated. Allow prints to remain in the bath for about 20 minutes. Wash thoroughly in running water.

Toning Prints

Toning consists of treating prints in a chemical solution which will give other colored tones to a plain black and white print. Glass tray or dishes only should be used for toning.

Blue Tones

Dissolve in 6 ounces of water 1 gram potassium ferricyanide, 1 gram ferric ammonium citrate, green, Nitric acid C. P. 2 ml. Place the prints in the above solution until desired tone is obtained, then rinse in running water for 15 minutes.

Blue tones from gold solution

Gives very rich tones. 2 solutions are required. Gold chloride 15 grains (1 gram) dissolved in water 8 ounces, makes solution No. 1. Solution No. 2 is made by dissolving Thiourea 4 grams in water 8 ounces. To use take 2 ounces of solution No. 1 and pour into 2 ounces of solution No. 2. Add 15 drops C. P. Sulphuric acid. This is enough for 3 prints. Allow to remain in toning solution for 10 to 15 minutes then rinse in clear water for 20-30 minutes.

Sepia Tones

2 solutions are required. For solution No. 1 dissolve 20 grams Potassium Ferricyanide and 35 grams potassium bromide in 10 ounces water For solution No. 2 dissolve 1 ounce sodium sulphide crystals in 10 ounces water. For use mix 1 ounce of solution No. 1 with 10 ounces of water. Place the print in this solution until darker shades are definitely reduced. Rinse in running water until no more yellow drops off the print, then place in solution made with 1/2 ounce solution No. 2 in 10 ounces of water. When the desired sepia tone has been acquired rinse for 15 minutes.


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